LIVE pioneered the use of using linear cortical models for image processing and analysis. Shortly after the Gabor filter model of visual neurons in primary visual neurons was discovered, researchers in LIVE pioneered the concept of using Gabor filter models for image processing, analysis, and interpretation. Since then, the Gabor filter model has become a fundamental centerpiece of image processing and computer vision theory, and is relevant to image processing standards such as MPEG-7. LIVE also developed the new concept of the Image Modulation model, whereby image patterns are modeled as amplitude and/or frequency modulated locally bandpass image patterns. The Image Modulation Model has been applied to a plethora of problems in 3D shape computation, image compression, texture analysis and segmentation, medical imaging, and fingerprint analysis. It remains the leading deterministic model of image patterns. Some of the key papers follow:
M. Clark and A.C. Bovik, “Texture discrimination using a model of visual cortex,” IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Atlanta, Georgia, October 14- 17, 1986.
A.C. Bovik, M. Clark and W.S. Geisler, “Computational texture analysis using localized spatial filtering,” IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Computer Vision, Miami Beach, Florida, November 30-December 2, 1987
M. Clark, A.C. Bovik and W.S. Geisler, “Texture segmentation using Gabor modulation/ demodulation,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 6, pp. 261-267, September 1987.
M. Clark and A.C. Bovik, “Experiments in segmenting texton patterns using localized spatial filters,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 707-717, 1989.
A.C. Bovik, M. Clark and W.S. Geisler, “Multichannel texture analysis using localized spatial filters,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI- 12, no. 1, pp. 55-73, January 1990.
B. Super and A.C. Bovik, “Localized measurement of image fractal dimension using Gabor filters,” Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 114- 128, June 1991.
A.C. Bovik, “Analysis of multichannel narrowband filters for image texture segmentation,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. SP-39, no. 9, pp. 2025-2043, September 1991.
A.C. Bovik, N. Gopal, T. Emmoth and A. Restrepo, “Localized measurement of emergent image frequencies by Gabor wavelets,” Special Issue on Wavelet Transforms and Multiresolution Signal Analysis, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT-38, no. 3, pp. 691-712, March 1992.
B.J. Super and A.C. Bovik, “Shape from texture using local spectral moments,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-17, no. 4, pp. 333- 343, April 1995.
B.J. Super and A.C. Bovik, “Planar surface orientation from texture spatial frequencies,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 729-743, May 1995.
P. Maragos and A.C. Bovik, “Image amplitude and frequency demodulation using multidimensional energy separation,” Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1867-1876, September 1995.
J.P. Havlicek, D.S. Harding and A.C. Bovik, “The multicomponent AM-FM image representation,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Special Issue on Nonlinear Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1094-1100, June 1996.
J.P. Havlicek, D.S. Harding and A.C. Bovik, "Multicomponent multidimensional signals," Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 9, pp. 391-398, 1998.
J.P. Havlicek, D.S. Harding and A.C. Bovik, "Multidimensional quasi-eigenfunction approximations and multicomponent AM-FM models," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 227-242, February 2000.
M. Pattichis, C. Pattichis, M. Avraam, A.C. Bovik and K. Kyriacou “AM-FM texture segmentation in electron microscopic muscle imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1253-1258, December 2000.
M.S. Pattichis, A.C. Bovik, J.W. Havlicek and N.D. Sidiropoulos, "Multidimensional orthogonal FM transforms," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 448- 464, March 2001.
S.T. Acton, D.P. Mukherjee, J.P. Havlicek and A.C. Bovik, “Oriented texture completion by AM-FM reaction-diffusion," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 885-896, June 2001.
M.S. Pattichis, G. Panayi, A.C. Bovik and S.-P. Hsu, “Fingerprint classification using an AM-FM model," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 951-954, June 2001.